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Egyptian Shabtis Discovered in Various Regions of Europe

Mladen Tomorad


In this paper the author analyzes the presence of ancient Egyptian shabtis discovered around Europe. These are commonly related to the diffusion of ancient Egyptian cults during the Late and Greco-Roman periods. The first section discusses the role of shabtis in Egyptian religious and funerary custom. The second describes the production of shabtis. The third deals with the so-called forgeries from the Greco-Roman period. The fourth discusses the diffusion of shabtis during this period, and the fifth offers hypotheses about their use in the Mediterranean world. The sixth analyzes various examples of shabtis discovered in Europe.

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