The University of Arizona

Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction patterns as a potential tool for the identification of impact-deformed carbonate rocks

S. A. HUSON, F. F. FOIT, A. J. WATKINSON, M. C. POPE

Abstract


Previous X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that shock deformed carbonates and quartz have broader XRD patterns than those of unshocked samples. Entire XRD patterns, single peak profiles and Rietveld refined parameters of carbonate samples from the Sierra Madera impact crater, west Texas, unshocked equivalent samples from 95 miles north of the crater and the Mission Canyon Formation of southwest Montana and western Wyoming were used to evaluate the use of X-ray powder diffraction as a potential tool for distinguishing impact deformed rocks from unshocked and tectonically deformed rocks. At Sierra Madera dolostone and limestone samples were collected from the crater rim (lower shock intensity) and the central uplift (higher shock intensity). Unshocked equivalent dolostone samples were collected from well cores drilled outside of the impact crater. Carbonate rocks of the Mission Canyon Formation were sampled along a transect across the tectonic front of the Sevier and Laramide orogenic belts. Whereas calcite subjected to significant shock intensities at the Sierra Madera impact crater can be differentiated from tectonically deformed calcite from the Mission Canyon Formation using Rietveld refined peak profiles, weakly shocked calcite from the crater rim appears to be indistinguishable from the tectonically deformed calcite. In contrast, Rietveld analysis readily distinguishes shocked Sierra Madera dolomite from unshocked equivalent dolostone samples from outside the crater and tectonically deformed Mission Canyon Formation dolomite.

Keywords


Impact crater;Impact crater Sierra Madera;Texas;USA;X-ray diffraction

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