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PERCUTANEOUS FLUOROSCOPICALLY-GUIDED TRANSCERVICAL RETROGRADE ACCESS FACILITATES SUCCESSFUL THORACIC DUCT EMBOLIZATION AFTER FAILED ANTEGRADE TRANSABDOMINAL ACCESS

JJ Bundy, JFB Chick, A Jiao, MR Cline, RN Srinivasa, M Khayat, R Gnannt, EJ Johnson, JJ Gemmete, EJ Monroe, RN Srinivasa

Abstract


The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of percutaneous fluoroscopically-guided transcervical retrograde access into the thoracic duct following unsuccessful transabdominal cisterna chyli cannulation to perform thoracic duct embolization for the treatment of chylothorax. Five patients, including three (60%) women and two (40%) men, with median age of 62 years, underwent percutaneous transcervical thoracic duct access and embolization after failed transabdominal cisterna chyli cannulation for the treatment of chylothorax. In all patients, fluoroscopically-guided percutaneous transcervical retrograde access into the distal thoracic duct was achieved using a 21-gauge needle and an 0.018-inch wire. Following advancement of a microcatheter, retrograde lymphangiography was performed to identify the location of thoracic duct injury. A combination of 2:1 ethiodized oil to cyanoacrylate mixtures, platinum microcoils, or stent-grafts were used to treat the chylous leaks. Technical successes, procedure durations, fluoroscopy times, blood losses, immediate adverse events, clinical successes, and follow-up durations were recorded. Technical success was defined as cannulation of the distal thoracic duct using a transcervical approach followed by treatment of the thoracic duct injury. Adverse events were classified according to the Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Clinical success was defined as resolution of the presenting chylothorax. Percutaneous transcervical retrograde thoracic duct access and treatment was technically successful in all patients (n=5). Median procedure duration was 173 minutes (range: 136-347 minutes) with a median fluoroscopy time of 94.7 minutes (range: 47-125 minutes). Median blood loss was 10 mL (range: 5-20 mL). No minor or major adverse occurred.Clinical success was achieved in all patients(n=5). Median follow-up was 372 days (range:67-661 days). Percutaneous fluoroscopicallyguided transcervical retrograde thoracic duct access is an effective and safe method to perform thoracic duct embolization following unsuccessful transabdominal cisterna chyli cannulation for the treatment of chylothorax.


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