The University of Arizona

Canadian bluejoint response to heavy grazing.

W.B. Collins, E.F. Becker, A.B. Collins


A disclimax stand of Canadian bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv.) was heavily grazed by cattle and horses for 4 years to weaken the grass's competition with hardwoods important as browse and cover to wildlife. Stocking at 0.084 ha AUM(-1) resulted in uniform utilization of bluejoint and maintenance of early phenology through the growing season. Etiolated bluejoint declined about 90%, but grass production increased 10 to 15%, as fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.), a principal herbaceous component of the stand, decreased in response to trampling. Rhizomes of heavily grazed bluejoint had lower total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) (p = 0.0127), lower weight (g cm(-1) length) (p = 0.05), and reduced biomass (g cm(-3) of soil) (p = 0.05). Shoots of grazed bluejoint maintained higher nitrogen (p = 0.0001) and higher digestibility (IVDMD) (p = 0.0017) than bluejoint that was never grazed. This enabled heavily grazed bluejoint to retain good forage quality through the entire growing season, as opposed to ungrazed bluejoint, which became poor forage at the time of flowering during early July. Following one season of rest, rhizome TNC, shoot nitrogen, and IVDMD returned to levels of never grazed bluejoint. Seedhead production, seed production, seed weights, and seed viability of rested bluejoint were about the same as in ungrazed stands. On wet sites, heavy grazing does not adequately reduce the vigor of this grass.



Calamagrostis canadensis;Epilobium angustifolium;rhizomes;plant development;wildlife;viability;competitive ability;carbohydrates;browse plants;seed weight;seed productivity;shoots;Alaska;horses;weight;woody plants;digestibility;cattle;nitrogen content;biomass;phenology;plant competition;grazing;trampling;chemical constituents of plants

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