The University of Arizona

An Analysis of Higher-Order Thinking: Examining a Secondary Physics I Web-Enhanced Instructional Design.

Lisa M. Coolidge Manley

Abstract


This paper discusses a small-scale study assessing the extent to which the instructional design of a web-enhanced educational learning environment using the specific CMC discussion board tool facilitated higher-order thinking processes. The study was carried out in a secondary Physics I online module with 38 male and female high school students. Group discussion posts and final analyses data was coded and analyzed using the Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2001) Community of Inquiry (CoI) model. Two raters coded over 311 discussion messages using the cognitive presence categories and indicators to determine the level of higher-order thinking processes. Each message was given a number relating to the model’s categories: 1=triggering, 2=exploration, 3=integration, and 4=resolution, plus an additional category of 5=social to determine the level of social presence. Results determined that 8% of participant groups’ postings moved to higher levels of thinking processes through the use of authentic learning activities, CMC discussion board tool, and teacher presence, however 32% could not move beyond exploration. Over 43% of student postings scored in the social category, an increased result than previous studies in higher education. Data also indicated 19 out of 38 that is 50% of the participants were able to score in the higher-order thinking levels on their final analyses rather than in the discussion thread. Well-designed online learning modules offering learners authentic learning activities, CMC collaborative tools, prompting questions, and teacher presence must be accompanied with precise structured directives for secondary learners to achieve higher levels of critical thinking within collaborative discussion groups.

DOI: 10.2458/azu_itet_v1i1_manley


Keywords


Community of Inquiry; Cognitive Presence; Higher-Order Thinking; Instructional Design

Full Text:

HTML PDF

References


Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives. Complete edition. New York, NY: Longman.

Anderson, T., Poelhuber, B., & McKerlich, R. (2010). Self-paced learners’ meet social software: An exploration of learners’ attitudes, expectations and experience. Journal of Distance Education Administration, 13(3). Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/Fall133/anderson_poellhuber_mcKerlich133.html

Andresen, M. A. (2009). Asynchronous discussion forums: Success factors, outcome, assessments, and limitations. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 249-257. Retrieved from http://www.ifets.info/journals/12_1/19.pdf

Bai, H. (2009). Facilitating students’ critical thinking in online discussion: An instructor’s experience. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8(2), 156-164. Retrieved from http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/

Baird, D. E., & Fisher, M. (2006). Neomillennial user experience design strategies: Utilizing social networking media to support “always on” learning styles. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 34(1), 5-32. doi:10.2190/6WMW-47L0-M81Q-12G1

Campbell, J. P., & Oblinger, D. G. (2007). Top ten teaching and learning issues. Educause Quarterly, 30(3), 15-22. Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eqm0732.pdf

Cavanaugh C. S. (2001). The effectiveness of interactive distance education technologies in K-12 learning: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 7(1). 73-88. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/p/8461

Cavanaugh, C., Gillan, K., Kromrey, J., Hess, M., & Blomeyer, R. (2004). The effects of distance education on K-12 student outcomes: A meta-analysis. Naperville, IL: Learning Point Associates. Retrieved from www.ncrel.org/tech/distance/index.html

Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Education Technology, Research, and Development, 42(2), 21-29. doi:10.1007/BF02299088

Clark, W., Logan, K., Luckin, R., Mee, A., & Oliver, M. (2009) Beyond Web 2.0: Mapping the technology landscapes of young learners. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25, 56 -69.

Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction. (3rd ed.) Boston: Pearson

Estrad, O. (2003) Electracy as empowerment: Student activities in learning environment using technology. Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 11(1), 11-28. doi:10.1177/1103308803011001073

Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1), 61-72. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/sites/default/files/v11n1_8garrison.pdf

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105. doi:10.1016/S1096-7516(00)00016-6

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7-23. doi:10.1080/08923640109527071

Garrison, D. R., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the Community of Inquiry framework: Review, issues and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(3), 157-172. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2007.04.001

Garrison D. R., & Cleveland-Innes, M., (2005). Facilitating cognitive presence in online learning: Interaction is not enough. The American Journal of Distance Education, 19(3), 133-148. doi:10.1207/s15389286ajde1903_2

Garrison D. R., & Cleveland-Innes, M., & Fung, T. (2004). Student role adjustment in online communities of inquiry: Model and instrument validation. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network, 8(2), 61-74. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/system/files/v8n2_garrison.pdf

Hein, T. L. & Irvine, S. E. (1998). Assessment of student understanding using on-line discussion groups. 28th Annual Frontiers in Education Conference. Moving from ‘Teacher-Centered’ to ‘Learner-Centered’ Education. Conference Proceedings, 130-135. doi:10.1109/FIE.1998.736819

Holsti, O. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Don Mills, ON: Addison-Wesley.

Huett, J., Moller, L., Foshay, W.F., & Coleman, C. (2008). The evolution of distance education: Implications for instructional design on the potential of the web. TechTrends, 52(5), 63-67. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.library.capella.edu/docview/223118296?accountid=27965

Hughes, M., Ventura, S., & Dando, M. (2007). Assessing social presence in online discussion groups: A replication study. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(1), 17-29. doi:10.1080/14703290601090366

Johnson, L., Levine, A., Smith, R. and Stone, S. (2010). The 2010 Horizon Report, The New Media Consortium. Austin, TX. Available at: http://wp.nmc.org/horizon2010/

Jonassen, D. H. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models, Vol. II (pp. 215-239). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Kanuka, H. (2005). An exploration into facilitating higher levels of learning in a text-based internet learning environment using diverse instructional strategies. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(3), 00. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2005.tb00256.x

Kanuka, H., & Garrison, D.R. (2004). Cognitive presence in online learning. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 15(2), 30-48. doi:10.1007/BF02940928

Kanuka, H., Rourke, L., & LaFlamme, E. (2007). The influence of instructional methods on the quality of online discussion. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(2), 260-271. doi:10.111/j.1467-8535.2006.00620.x

Ke, F. (2010). Examining online teaching, cognitive, and social presence for adult students. Computers & Education, 55, 808-820. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.03.013

Krebs, T. J. (2004). Implementing an online web design course module at a suburban high school: A phenomenological case study. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (305042889)

Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P. A., Jochems, W. (2003). Identifying the pitfalls of social interaction in computer-supported collaborative learning environments: A review of the research. Computers in Human Behavior, 19(3), 335-353. doi:10.1016/S0747-5632(02)00057-2

Lichtman, M. (2010). Qualitative research in education: A user’s guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. (2008). Mapping the digital terrain: New media and social software as catalysts for pedagogical change. In Hello! Where are you in the landscape of educational technology? Proceedings ascilite Melbourne 2008. 641-652. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs/index.htm

McLoughlin, D., & Mynard J. (2009). An analysis of higher order thinking in online discussions. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 46(2), 147-160. doi:10.1080/14703290902843778

Meyer, K. A. (2003). Face-to-face versus threaded discussions: The role of time and higher-order thinking. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(3), 55-65. Retrieved from http://www.sloanconsortium.org/publications/jaln_main.

Meyer, K.A. (2004). Evaluating online discussions: Four different frames of analysis. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(2), 101-114. Retrieved from: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/index.asp.

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants Part 1. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6. doi:10.1108/10748120110424816

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 2: Do They Really Think Differently? On the Horizon, 9(6), 1-6. doi:10.1108/10748120110424843

Reeves, T.C., Herrington, J., & Oliver, R. (2002). Authentic activities and online learning. In A. Goody, J. Herrington, & M. Northcote (Eds.), Quality conversations: Research and Development in Higher Education, 25 (pp. 562-567). Jamison, ACT: HERDSA.

Rice, K. (2006). A comprehensive look at distance education in the K-12 context. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(4), 425-447. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/p/27245

Rockinson-Szapkiw, A. J. (2009). The impact of asynchronous and synchronous instruction and discussion on cognitive presence, social presence, teaching presence, and learning. (Doctoral Dissertation)., Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/3370135

Ronsisvalle, T., & Watkins, R. (2005). Student success in online K-12 education. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 6(2), 117-124. Retrieved from http://www.infoagepub.com/index.php?id=89&i=12

Rovai, A. P. (2002). Building sense of community at a distance. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 5(1). 1-16. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.Org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/79/l53

Rovai, A. P. (2007). Facilitating online discussions effectively. Internet and Higher Education, 10, 77-88. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2006.10.001

Schrire, S. (2006). Knowledge building in asynchronous discussion groups: Going beyond quantitative analysis. Computers & Education, 46, 49-70. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2005.04.006

Shea, P., & Bidjerano, T. (2009). Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster “epistemic engagement” and “cognitive presence” in online education. Computers & Education, 52(3), 543-553. doi:10/1016/j.compedu.2008.10.007

Shea, P., Li, C. S., & Pickett, A. (2006) Teacher presence student sense of learning community in fully online and web-enhanced college courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 9(3), 175-190. doi:10.1016/jheduc.2006.06.005

Tu, C. H., & McIsaac, M. (2002). The relationship of social presence and interaction in online classes. The American Journal of Distance Education, 16(3), 131-150. doi:10.1207/S15389286AJDE1603_2

Wallis, C. (2006, March 27). The multitasking generation. Time, 167(13), 48-55. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,1174696,00.html

Wu, D., & Hiltz, S. R., (2004). Predicting learning from asynchronous online discussions. Journal of Asynchronous Learning, 8(2), 139-52. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/jaln/v8n2/predicting-learning-asynchronous-online-discussions


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.